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Message Publié : 22 Oct 2020 8:34 
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Hérodote
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Pour ceux intéressés par des informations sur la prise de Baghdad de 1258 je vous conseille de lire les textes de Kirakos Ganjakets'i's (historien arménien du 13ème siècle). Ils fournissent une quantité importante d'informations considérées comme fiables sur le sujet, les arméniens ayant participé à la prise de Baghdad.

Voici quelques extraits pour ceux qui comprennent l'anglais (traduction de Robert Bedrosian) :

Kirakos Ganjakets'i's a écrit :
In the year 707 of the Armenian Era [1258], Mongke-Khan, the great king of the kings of the earth, conqueror of the world, mustered a countless host and went to a distant land in the southeast against a people called the Nayngas. For this people had rebelled from him and did not pay him taxes like the other lands. The Nayngas were warlike men, fortified by their land; and they were idol-worshippers. Furthermore they devoured their old men and women. The whole clan of sons, grandsons and great grandsons would assemble [314] and would skin their aged parents through the mouth. They would remove the flesh and bones, cooking and eating them, leaving no leftovers. Out of the skin they make a bag which they fill with wine and from which all of them drink using the [deceased's] male member. However, only relatives do this, and none other, since they alone were sired [g377] by the deceased and it is theirs alone to eat and drink of him. The skull they encase in gold and drink from it for an entire year.

Mongke-Khan went against them in battle, crushed and forcibly subjugated them. But on the way home, death pangs gripped him and he died. His brother Arigh Boke (Arik' Bugha) seized the throne.

Now Hulegu (who was his brother and had been appointed head of the troops in the East by him) commanded all those subject to him to go against the Tachik capital, Baghdad, which was the seat of the Tachik dominion.

The king who sat in Baghdad was not called sultan or melik as the Turkish, Iranian or Kurdish autocrats customarily are, but caliph, that is, a descendant of Mahmet. The great Hulegu went against the caliph with a countless multitude [composed] of all the peoples subject to him. This [315] was done in the autumn and winter seasons because of the severe heat of that country [in the summer]. Prior to his departure [g378] he ordered Baiju-noyin and the troops with him in the land of [the sultan of] Rum to go and surround the great Tigris River on which the city of Baghdad was built, so that no one flee by boat from the city to Ctesiphon or to the more secure Basra. They immediately obeyed the command, tying pontoon bridges across the great river and sinking between [the surface of the] river and its bed sturdy fences with iron hooks and pipes so that no one depart the city swimming without them knowing about it.

Now Caliph Must'asar [translator's note: in fact, the last caliph was al-Musta'sim], who resided in the city proudly and presumptuously sent many troops against those guarding the river. [The caliph's men] were under the command of a chief named Dawdar [davat-dar, "vice-chancellor"] ostikan of his house. Dawdar went and first triumphed, killing some three thousand T'at'ars. When evening fell he sat eating and drinking without a care. And he sent messengers to Caliph Must'asar saying: "I defeated all of them, and tomorrow I will do away with the few survivors."

Now the crafty and ingenious T'at'ar army spent the entire [g379] night arming and organizing. They surrounded the Tachik army. [316] Among the T'at'ars was prince Zak'are, son of Shahnshah. At daybreak they put their swords to work, destroying the entire group and throwing them into the river. Only a few men escaped.

That same morning the great Hulegu surrounded the city of Baghdad, stationing everyone an arm's length from the wall [and telling them] to demolish it and guard well that none escape. He sent the valiant Prhosh [Xaghbakean] and others as emissaries to the caliph, so that he would come out obediently and pay taxes to the Khan. [The caliph] gave a stern reply full of insults, claiming to be lord of sea and land, and boasting about the [magical] banner of Mahmet, saying: "It is here and, if I touch it, you and the entire world will be destroyed. You are a dog, a Turk. Why should I pay taxes to you or obey you?"

However, Hulegu did not become aggrevated because of the insults nor did he write any boasts. He merely said: "God knows what He does." Then he ordered the wall demolished; and they demolished it. He said to rebuild it again and guard it carefully. And they did so. [g380]

[317] The city was full of soldiers and people. For seven days they stood on the walls but no one shot arrows at them nor were swords used, either by the citizens or by the T'at'ar soldiers. But after seven days the citizens began to request peace and to come [to Hulegu] with affection and submission.

And Hulegu ordered that this be done [that peace be made]. Then countless multitudes came through the city gates, climbing over each other to see who would reach him first. [Hulegu] divided up among the soldiers those who came out and ordered [the soldiers] to take them far from the city and to kill them secretly so that the others would not know. They killed all of them.

Four days later Caliph Must'asar [i.e., al-Musta'sim] also emerged with his two sons, with all the grandees and much gold, silver, and precious stones as fitting gifts for Hulegu and his nobles. At first [Hulegu] honored him, reproaching him for dallying and not coming to him quickly. But then he asked the caliph: "What are you, God or man?" And the caliph responded: "I am a man, and the servant of God." Hulegu asked: "Well, did God tell you to insult me and to call me a dog and not to give food and drink to God's dog? Now in hunger the dog of God shall devour you." And he [318] killed him with his own hands. "That," he said, "is an honor for you, because I killed you myself and did not give you to another for killing." He ordered his son [g381] to slay one of the caliph's sons while he gave the other son as a sacrifice to the Tigris River, saying: "It did not harm us but was our collaborator in killing the senseless ones." And he said: "This man caused much blood to flow through pride. Let him go and answer to God and may we be innocent." He also killed other grandees.

[Hulegu] then ordered the troops guarding the walls to descend and kill the inhabitants of the city, great and small. [The Mongols] organized as though harvesting a field, and cut down countless, innumerable multitudes of men, women, and children. For forty days they did not stop. Then they grew weary and stopped killing. Their hands grew tired; they took the others for sale. They destroyed mercilessly.

However, Hulegu's wife, the senior Khatun, named Doquz Khatun (Toghuz xat'un) was a Christian. She spared the Christians of Baghdad, Nestorians and other denominations and beseeched her husband not to kill them. And he spared them with their goods and property.

[319] [Hulegu] ordered all his soldiers to take the goods and property of the city. They all loaded up with gold, [g382] silver, precious stones, pearls, and costly garments, for it was an extremely rich city, unequalled on earth.

[Hulegu] himself took as his share the caliph's treasures--three thousand camel loads; and there was no counting the horses, mules and asses. Other houses, full of treasure, he sealed with his ring and left guards. For he was unable to take everything, since there was so much. Five hundred fifteen years had elapsed since that city was built by the Ishmaelite Jap'r in 194 A.E. [A.D. 745] on the Tigris River above Ctesiphon (Katisbon), about five day's journey above Babylon, and it had taken everything into its kingdom like an insatiable blood-sucker, swallowing up the entire world. It was destroyed in 707 A.E. [1258] paying the blood price for the blood it had caused to flow and for the evil it had wrought. When its measure of sin was filled up before the Omniscient God, He repaid it justly, strictly, and truthfully. And the [g383]arrogant and fanatical kingdom of the Tachiks ended after a duration of six hundred and forty seven years. Baghdad was taken on the first day of Lent, on Monday of the month of Nawasard, the twentieth of the month by the moveable [calendrical system].

[320] All this was narrated to us by prince Hasan called Prosh, son of the pious Vasak, son of Haghbak, brother of Papak' and Mkdem, father of Mkdem, Papak', Hasan and Vasak who was an eyewitness to the events and also heard about events with his own ears, [a man] enjoying great honor in the Khan's eyes.


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Message Publié : 03 Juin 2021 19:51 
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Thucydide
Thucydide

Inscription : 10 Sep 2007 14:54
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Chosefil a écrit :
Pour ceux intéressés par des informations sur la prise de Baghdad de 1258 je vous conseille de lire les textes de Kirakos Ganjakets'i's (historien arménien du 13ème siècle). Ils fournissent une quantité importante d'informations considérées comme fiables sur le sujet, les arméniens ayant participé à la prise de Baghdad.

Voici quelques extraits pour ceux qui comprennent l'anglais (traduction de Robert Bedrosian) :



Bonjour Chosefil,

Merci de ton poste.

J'aurai des information passionnantes sur la foi bouddhiste de Houlagou et sa relation à la prophétie bouddhiste de fin des temps du Kalachakra. On pourrait en parler ici. La traduction de ton lien (dans ton poste), est très bien faite, merci.


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Message Publié : 03 Juin 2021 19:55 
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Thucydide
Thucydide

Inscription : 10 Sep 2007 14:54
Message(s) : 36
Hugues de Hador a écrit :
Kalachakra a écrit :
Que l'Islam fut détruit dans sa splendeur par les musulmans eux-mêmes alliés aux bouddhistes, aux chrétiens, qui y jouèrent un rôle très important, ainsi que les autres religions aussi, comme l'Hindouisme.


Bonjour

Je ne crois pas qu'Hulagu Khan ce soit engagé dans une guerre de religion. Ils faisaient la guerre (tout court). Peut être que leur 'conception' de l'existance d'un Khan universel les poussaient à demander à chaque chef d'état de se soumettre.

Les Mongols, au sujet de la religion, ont toujours été très pragmatiques et dans les régions qu'ils contrôlaient, ils garantissaient la liberté de culte.

Certes, il semble bien que certains d'entre eux se soit (plus ou moins) convertis, mais en gardant toujours des croyances (et tabous) provenant du chamanisme.

Différents mouvements religieux ont (très certainement) fait du 'lobisme' auprès des Khans. Dans le cas des Ilkhan de perse, je ne suis pas très convaincu de leur grande influence.

Les Mongols (dans leur grande majorité) ont fini par devenir Boudhistes pour une partie et musulmans pour l'autre partie.


Bien à tous.


Bonjour, j'ai de nouvelles informations très intéressantes sur la foi bouddhiste tibétaine que suivait Houlagou. On pourrait en parler.


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